Best Farming Practices for Corn Cultivation
In Indonesia, corn is the second-most important cereal crop after rice. In terms of the percentage of land cultivated, corn is relatively more widely planted compared to the total area of all food crops. According to the report from the Center for Data and Information Systems of the Ministry of Agriculture, the national corn harvest area from January to December 2021 covered 4.15 million hectares, with a net production of 15.79 million tons and a moisture content of 14%. Meanwhile, the annual demand for corn for feed, consumption, and the food industry totals 14.37 million tons. Adding the year-end stock from December 2020, which was 1.43 million tons, the 2021 corn stock amounted to 2.85 million tons (KEMENTAN, 2021b).
In Indonesia, corn is widely used for the livestock feed industry. Given its relatively high metabolic energy content compared to other feed materials, corn is rich in non-nitrogen extract (Beta-N), mainly starch. It has a high fat content and low crude fiber, making it easily digestible (Mordenti et al., 2021). Moreover, a portion of the corn harvest is used for consumption, the food industry, and biofuel production (Choudhary et al., 2020).
Corn is extensively grown in Indonesia in rainfed (dryland) areas in the eastern regions of Indonesia, such as East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) and West Nusa Tenggara (NTB). In some regions, like Sumatra and Java, corn is cultivated in irrigated rice fields as a rotation crop in the rice cultivation system. Corn planted in dryland areas often faces challenges like high soil temperatures during germination, nutrient deficiencies, and moisture stress during flowering. On the other hand, corn grown in irrigated fields encounters issues related to waterlogging, making it difficult for the crop to grow and develop.
Corn is one of the most researched and cultivated crops in Indonesia, resulting in a wealth of information about its production and management. This module is not intended to replace existing information but is aimed at providing insights and specific knowledge related to conditions and technologies derived from various research findings, such as the use of growth regulators in seed preparation and other corn production management issues.
Best Farming Practices for Corn Cultivation (3.51MB)